A Violation of Probation (VOP) can be either substantive or technical. A substantive violation means a new criminal charge and a technical violation means that a condition has been broken or not followed but there is no new criminal offense.
In defending violations of probation, a confusing issue for clients is when does the probation period end if there has been a violation affidavit or report filed and a warrant issued, or a warrantless arrest is made, or a notice to appear on the VOP is created. Until recently, the advice by a VOP defense attorney would be that the probationary period is tolled as soon as that warrant is issued, arrest is made or notice is issued.
Many criminal or violation of probation cases start when drugs are found after search at a traffic stop or or other offenses are discovered via the stop such as violation of a curfew or license restriction. This is particularly problematic for people on probation. New criminal law violations are substantive violations, everything else is a technical violation of probation.
One option in Criminal sentencing is probation. Some people are not aware that there is an option to request to terminate or get off of probation early by filing a motion for early termination of probation. A probationer does have to file a written motion in the court and request a court hearing. Most judges will consider the motion to terminate probation early after half the time is served and all conditions are completed.
Probation can be revoked upon a finding that a violation is willful and substantial. The State has burden to prove by the greater weight of the evidence that the probation violation is willful and substantial. This standard or burden of proof is also called preponderance or "more likely than not".
While the law engenders many questions, one of the most common areas of confusion for probationers is the law on violation of probation or VOPs. Violation of probations can be alleged for either technical or substantive reasons. A new law violation, such as a new charge for possession of marijuana or DUI while on probation, is a substantive violation. Meanwhile, an example of a technical violation of probation would be testing positive for marijuana while on probation or otherwise having a dirty urine or screen. Failure to pay restitution or failing to complete community service hours are other examples of technical violations of probation.